A gyrovector space approach to hyperbolic geometry by Abraham Ungar

By Abraham Ungar

The mere point out of hyperbolic geometry is sufficient to strike worry within the center of the undergraduate arithmetic and physics pupil. a few regard themselves as excluded from the profound insights of hyperbolic geometry in order that this huge, immense component to human fulfillment is a closed door to them. The challenge of this publication is to open that door by means of making the hyperbolic geometry of Bolyai and Lobachevsky, in addition to the distinct relativity conception of Einstein that it regulates, available to a much broader viewers when it comes to novel analogies that the fashionable and unknown proportion with the classical and time-honored. those novel analogies that this e-book captures stem from Thomas gyration, that's the mathematical abstraction of the relativistic impact often called Thomas precession. Remarkably, the mere creation of Thomas gyration turns Euclidean geometry into hyperbolic geometry, and divulges mystique analogies that the 2 geometries percentage. therefore, Thomas gyration supplies upward push to the prefix "gyro" that's generally utilized in the gyrolanguage of this publication, giving upward thrust to phrases like gyrocommutative and gyroassociative binary operations in gyrogroups, and gyrovectors in gyrovector areas. Of specific significance is the advent of gyrovectors into hyperbolic geometry, the place they're equivalence periods that upload in keeping with the gyroparallelogram legislations in complete analogy with vectors, that are equivalence periods that upload in keeping with the parallelogram legislations. A gyroparallelogram, in flip, is a gyroquadrilateral the 2 gyrodiagonals of which intersect at their gyromidpoints in complete analogy with a parallelogram, that is a quadrilateral the 2 diagonals of which intersect at their midpoints. desk of Contents: Gyrogroups / Gyrocommutative Gyrogroups / Gyrovector areas / Gyrotrigonometry

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53). 16, according to which the gyration product applied to a in (3) is trivial. (4) Follows from (3) by the left gyroassociative law. Indeed, an application of the left gyroassociative law to (4) results in (3). (5) Follows from (4) since gyr[b, a]a is the unique inverse of gyr[b, a]a. (6) Follows from (5) since 0 is the unique identity element of the gyrogroup (G, ⊕). 6. THE BASIC CANCELLATION LAWS OF GYROGROUPS 19 Formalizing the results of this section, we have the following theorem. (The Two Basic Equations Theorem).

8) holds for all b, c∈G. 2, is equivalent to the gyrocommutativity of the gyrogroup (G, +). 7) holds for all a, b∈G if and only if the gyrogroup (G, +) is ✷ gyrocommutative. 4. Let (G, +) be a gyrocommutative gyrogroup. 11) for all a, b, c ∈ G. Proof. 21, p. 38), p. 12) = gyr[a, b + c]gyr[b, c] . 1. 5. d = (b c) − a . 14) for all a, b, c ∈ G. Proof. 11), along with an application of the right and the left loop property, we have gyr[a , b + a ]gyr[b + a , c ] = gyr[a , b + c ]gyr[b + c , c ] . 17) =d.

34), p. 12. Follows from (3) by the gyration even property and by a left cancellation. 130). 130). Follows from (6) by the gyration even property. 34), p. 12. Follows from (8) by a right cancellation. 11. 35. 33 Let (G, +) be a gyrogroup. 144) of G into itself is bijective so that when a runs over all the elements of G its image, c, runs over all the elements of G as well for any given element b ∈ G. Proof. 144) is ✷ bijective and, hence, the result of the Corollary. 145) for all a, b, u, v ∈ G.

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