A Guide to Digital Television Systems and Measurements by David K. Fibush

By David K. Fibush

1994 1st Tektronix. 4to., 82pp., wraps. VG.

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Typical error detection data will be presented as errored seconds over a period of time, and time since the last errored second. In normal operation of the serial-digital interface, there will be no errors to measure. What’s of interest to the television engineer is the amount of headroom that’s available in the system. That is, how much stressing could be added to the system before the knee of the error rate curve or crash point is reached. As an out-of-service test, this can be determined by adding cable or other stressing method until the onset of errors.

The graph makes it very apparent that there’s a sharp knee in the cable length vs. error rate curve. Eighteen additional meters of cable (5 percent of the total) moves operation from the knee to completely unacceptable while 50 fewer meters of cable (12 percent of the total length) moves operation to a reasonably safe, 1 error/month. Similar results will be obtained for other standards where the calibration point for the calculation is 360 meters for PAL and 290 meters for component. Cable length changes required to maintain headroom ‘scales proportionally as shown in Figure 7-3.

Therefore, all error measurement methods external to a digital VTR are not meaningful because of potential blanking edge adjustment, error concealment methods and, in some equipment, the use of data-rate reduction. The good news is that various types of error rate and concealment rate data are available inside the VTR and standards for reporting that information are being developed. Table 7-1. Error Frequency and Bit Error Rates Time Between Errors 1 television frame NTSC 143 Mb/s PAL 177 Mb/s Component 270 Mb/s 2 x 10–7 2 x 10–7 1 x 10–7 10–9 10–9 4 x 10–9 1 second 7x 6x 1 minute 1 x 10–10 9 x 10–11 6 x 10–11 10–12 10–12 1 x 10–12 1 hour 2x 2x 1 day 8 x 10–14 7 x 10–14 4 x 10–14 10–14 10–15 6 x 10–15 1 week 1x 9x 1 month 3 x 10–15 2 x 10–15 1 x 10–15 10–16 10–16 1 x 10–16 1 year 2x 1 decade 2 x 10–17 2 x 10–17 1 x 10–17 1 century 10–18 10–18 1 x 10–18 2x 2x 2x Table 7-2.

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