Dictionary of Human Rights, A by David Robertson

By David Robertson

This reference paintings displays the becoming overseas quandary over human rights. It presents reasons of the terminology, matters, businesses and legislation surrounding this emotive topic. A Dictionary of Human Rights gains: * over two hundred transparent and concise mini-essays * alphabetical association for ease of use This e-book is a crucial resource for someone attracted to or hooked up with human rights matters.

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Busing Busing has been the most controversial, as well as virtually the only effective, way of handling de facto, as opposed to de jure, racial discrimination in education in the USA. Although the classic desegregation case of Brown v. Board had outlawed educational discrimination on racial grounds in 1954, this had referred only to formal, legally-based discrimination. In the Southern states effective discrimination continued because of the nature of school catchment areas, but this pattern was even more important in northern states where there had never been legal racial restrictions on entrance to individual schools.

The European Court ruled that the protection for religious freedom in Article 9 of the Convention was superior in this case to the Article 10 protections. The Court has given similar rulings in other cases, and, for example, upheld the seizure by the Austrian government in 1994 of a film deemed likely to offend Catholics. What was more surprising about the protection against blasphemy in the Lemon v. Whitehouse case was that the Court did not seem to find it objectionable that British law protects only Christianity.

In one of the classic cases of US jurisprudence, known as the Slaughterhouse case, a very strong minority voted to overthrow a state law setting up a monopoly in animal slaughtering, on the grounds that the right to labour as animal slaughterers on their own account was thus violated. Although the case in question was lost, this extensive definition of property proved to be extremely important in the development of the US concept of substantive due process. The right to choose and exercise any trade or profession, subject only to regulation in the public interest (for example, licensing of doctors or lawyers by professional bodies), is a prime example of how a right can be simultaneously an economic interest right and a personal development right, with inevitable problems for its justification and definition.

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