A Critical Dictionary of Sociology by Raymond Boudon, Francois Bourricaud

By Raymond Boudon, Francois Bourricaud

Unlike such a lot different sociology or social technology dictionaries, during this translation of the Critical Dictionary of Sociology, taken from the second one French variation of the Dictionary and edited through the English sociologist Peter Hamilton, the severe worth of this unique paintings is eventually made on hand for a much broader audience.

Each access grapples without delay with a subject, no matter if theoretical, epistemological, philosophical, political or empirical, and gives a powerful assertion of what the authors give it some thought. The discussions are thought of yet argumentative.  via reaffirming non-marxist sort of critique continues to be attainable, Boudon and Bourricaud have awarded a particular method of the foremost concerns which confront the societies of the 20 th and Twenty-First centuries.

For a few this paintings might be a textbook, for others an necessary sourcebook of sociological recommendations, and for many a manner of beginning our eyes to new dimensions in our realizing of the nice principles and theories of sociology.

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This point has been widely examined in ‘action’ and here the fact that aggregation effects often have an ‘emergent’ character will be examined. ‘Emergent’ because phenomena undesired by individuals and a result of actions and preferences aiming at completely different objectives appear at the collective level. Most of the classical sociologists insisted on this point. Simmel explains that ‘forms’ like ‘politeness’, ‘good manners’, are the result of the aggregation of multiple individual actions.

The existence of a common interest and the ‘consciousness’ of that interest are both necessary but not sufficient conditions for the appearance of collective action. In order that collective action should occur, other conditions must be fulfilled. 1) 2) There is a probability of collective action occurring where the number of individuals forming the latent group is very limited. In this first case, the marginal contribution of each individual is significant. The effectiveness of collective action and in consequence the benefits that it can produce are dependent upon the participation of every individual.

From mobilization to revolution, London, Addison-Wesley, 1978. Aggregation ‘Aggregation of preferences’ is used to describe the methods which allow us to draw a ‘collective’ preference from a set of ‘individual’ preferences: majority rule is one of these methods (cf. ‘Elections’). The notion of aggregation is often given a larger meaning and it can describe not only preferences but also individual actions. On the other hand, aggregation effects—also called composition effects— can result from the application of one aggregation ‘rule’, but also from the mere coincidence of preferences or of individual actions.

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