A Contingency-Based View of Chief Executive Officers’ Early by Andreas Kirschkamp, Prof. Dr. Utz Schäffer

By Andreas Kirschkamp, Prof. Dr. Utz Schäffer

Organizations have to establish dangers and probabilities of environmental alterations which will adapt to or potentially even to steer them. Early caution which includes scanning and interpretation performs a huge function during this technique. while the conventional contingency technique considers early caution as part of the organizational constitution, the prolonged contingency conception assumes the extra impression of an individual’s character on early caution.

Andreas Kirschkamp empirically analyses the early caution habit of leader govt officials in German medium-sized businesses. First, he offers the layout variables of early caution, then the influencing contingency variables. at the foundation of the scholarly examine on mental and contingency idea, the writer deduces hypotheses and assessments them. the consequences express that early caution habit is not just inspired through conventional contingency variables but in addition through own attitudes. accordingly, the writer proposes combining the prolonged contingency thought with the conventional contingency theory.

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Extra resources for A Contingency-Based View of Chief Executive Officers’ Early Warning Behavior: An Empirical Analysis of German Medium-Sized Companies

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The assumption of a limited number of structural types is in line with the Darwinistic view. “ Darwin (1968), p. 231. See Mintzberg (1979), p. 305ff. See Miller and Friesen (1984), p. 31ff. ”210 Based on this idea, they found four organizational archetypes: defenders, prospectors, analyzers and reactors. The difference between the two approaches of the contingency theory is also illustrated below. Configuration Approach Cartesian Approach High Performance High High High Performance High Performance Contextual Context Variable Contextual ontext Variable High Performance Low Low Low High Structural Variable Figure 10: Low High Structural Variable Difference between the Cartesian and Configuration Contingency Approach 211 Finally, the role of organizational members according to the classical contingency theory is analyzed.

24 and Ansoff (1976), p. 133. See Ansoff (1975), p. 135. Understanding of Early Warning in Literature and Definition of Important Terms Part B 18 Organizations have to react to weak signals in order to prevent strategic surprises. They do this by changing the state of the firm. ANSOFF proposes a range of possible response strategies according to the state of ignorance. dg Response Strategy States of Ignorance (1) Sense of Threat/ Opportunity (2) Source of Threat/ Opportunity (3) Threat/ Opportunity Concrete (4) Response Concrete (5) Outcome Concrete Environmental Awareness Self Awareness Internal Flexibility External Flexibility Internal Readiness Direct Action Figure 6: Ranges of Response Strategies to States of Ignorance 115 As seen above, before-the-fact preparedness comprises two dimensions: anticipation of strategic surprises and changing the state of the firm.

210 211 212 213 214 Miles and Snow (1978), p. 35. See Gerdin and Greve (2004), p. 306. See Lawrence and Lorsch (1967), p. 186. ]“ Payne and Pugh (1976), p. 1126. See also Breilmann (1990), p. 16 and Lawrence and Lorsch (1967), p. 17. For an overview of effect of the organizational structure on the individual see Kieser and Kubicek (1992), p. 422f. Contingency Theory as an Approach to Explain Early Warning Behavior 32 Context Organizational Individual Structure Behavior Part C Organizational Success Figure 11: 2 Assumed Causal Relationships by the Contingency Theory 215 Extension of the Classical Contingency Theory The main assumption of the classical contingency theory that the organization is only determined by its environment was criticized by researchers such as SILVERMAN,216 CHILD and MANSFIELD.

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